Data communication is the essential component that connects us the devices and services that we rely on in our interconnected digital world. It encompasses a variety of methods and media that dictate how information flows from one end to the other. Understanding how it works enables us to design a highly efficient and reliable networks that can provide the benefits of greater connection including improved efficiency and productivity of businesses, and innovations within automation.

Data communication is the transfer of data between computers using channels or medium. This can be done via the use of a wire cable, radio frequency, satellite signal or wirelessly. The person or device that transmits data is referred to as the sender and the computer which receives the data is known as the receiver. A data communication network could contain more than two computers involved in the process of communication.

Demultiplexing and multiplexing are both useful communication technologies that allow several signals to be sent across the same medium at the same time, maximizing the use of bandwidth and reducing costs. Both processes require special hardware that can combine and then separate signals. Custom integrated circuits are commonly employed to accomplish this task and are found in a variety of communication devices, including computers, cell phones, and printers.

Full-duplex communication is the mode of data communications that allows simultaneous two-way communication between two devices. This type of communication is more complex than simplex communication because it requires the ability of sending and receiving data at the same time.